|Femoral neck is the region connecting the shaft of the thigh bone (femur) to its rounded head, which fits into the hip joint (Picture 1). The femoral neck is potentially weak, because of its relatively smaller cross-sectional area and spongy bone tissue (cancellous bone). It is a part of the weight-bearing axis, which means that the weight of the entire body passes through it. Hence, it is the most frequently injured part of the thigh bone. Apart from injuries, the femoral neck is also a site for birth defects, cysts, and osteoporosis. Birth defects as well as injuries in children, lead to abnormal inward or outward curvatures of the thigh bone at the neck, which is called as coxa vara and valga respectively (Latin coxa = hip).|
Picture 1: Femoral Neck
This article explains terms: the supraspinatus tendon, tendon inflammation (supraspinatus tendinitis), degeneration (tendinosis) and tear.
What Is Supraspinatus Tendon?
The supraspinatus tendon attaches the supraspinatus muscle, which arise from the shoulder blade, to the head of the arm bone at the shoulder joint.
Function of Supraspinatus Muscle
The supraspinatus muscle is part of the rotator cuff – a group of muscles that move the shoulder joint. It arises from the upper part of the spine of the scapula (upper in Latin = supra; from here the name supraspinatus). The supraspinatus muscle is responsible for moving the arm up and away from the body within a range 60 and 120 degrees. When supraspinatus is injured, pain appears in this range of arm motion. Pain begins midway when lifting the arm and disappears once the arm is completely lifted - this phenomenon is called the painful arc syndrome (Picture 1).
Supraspinatus tendinopathy is a collective name for various disorders of supraspinatus tendon
- Supraspinatus tendinitis, an acute inflammation of the tendon due to friction of the tendon against the shoulder bones during repetitive shoulder use, especially in overhead work (swimming, painting, tennis).
- Supraspinatus tendinosis refers to chronic degeneration and destruction of the tendon making it prone to rupture.
- Supraspinatus tear is the end-result of repeated tendon injury from shoulder overuse resulting in shoulder weakness and pain during lifting the arm.
- Calcific supraspinatus tendinopathy occurs in the part of the tendon that is constantly exposed to friction; it is a part of the normal body reaction to frictional irritation.
Supraspinatus tendinopathy is recognized by pain that begins midway during lifting of the arm upwards, and disappears when the arm is fully up.
What Is Rotator Cuff ?
The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles that encircle the shoulder joint. It provides a flexible support to the bones that form the shoulder joint (arm bone, scapula and clavicle) , without restricting shoulder range of motion in any way. They are four muscles, namely subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus and teres minor, that form the rotator cuff (Picture 1). These muscles rotate the arm inwards or outwards, hence the name – rotator cuff. The tendons of these muscles are merged together, forming a complete ring that is attached to the bones near the shoulder joint.
continue reading Torn Rotator Cuff Muscles and Impingement Syndrome