Bleach in Teabags – Health Risks

Do Bleached Teabags Represent a Health Risk?

Recently, there was a lot of buzz in news about how dangerous bleached teabags may be. The fact is that during chlorine-bleaching some toxic substances, like dioxin, may be created. So, let’s find out if small amount of dioxin in chlorine-bleached teabags may actually be dangerous.

Teabags

Picture 1. Teabags

What are Teabags Made From?

First teabags were made from silk and muslin. Nowadays, teabags are mostly made from paper, produced from a blend of wood and vegetable (hemp) fibers. Both wood and vegetable pulp are usually chlorine-bleached, meaning that small amount of toxic chlorine compounds may end up in teabag paper.

To avoid chlorine toxicity, today some tea sellers use only teabags from non-chlorine (oxygen) bleached teabag paper, completely non-bleached paper, or teabags from synthetic fibers (1).

Paper Production and Bleaching

Wood consists of about 50% cellulose fibers, 30% lignin fibers, and 20% of other easily extracted substances (2). Lignin gives wood its strength and color. In order to get white paper (almost 100% cellulose), lignin and other substances have to be removed. Pulp cooking removes the most lignin from the pulp, and remaining lignin can be removed by bleaching.

Chlorine Bleaching

The aim of using chlorine is to remove lignin from pulp (delignification), and thus bleach it.

Chlorine

Up until the late 1990s, elementary chlorine (Cl2) was used for pulp bleaching (3). Chlorine pulls lignin out from the pulp. Some chlorine binds to lignin, resulting in toxic organochlorine byproducts like chloroform, dioxin, furans etc.

Chlorine Dioxide – Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) Bleaching

Nowadays chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is used in pulp bleaching instead of elementary chlorine. Chlorine dioxide does not bind to lignin but breaks it down, resulting in by far the less amount of dioxins in wood pulp (3). However, paper bleached with chlorine dioxide is still not completely chlorine free as some paper manufacturers may claim (3).

Extended delignification with ozone, oxygen or other non-chlorine whiteners, can furtherly reduce the amount of dioxins in the pulp (3).

Non-Chlorine Bleaching

Processed Chlorine Free (PCF) Bleaching

Processed Chlorine Free bleaching uses totally chlorine free processing, but includes recycled paper, which must be assumed as previously chlorine-bleached. Both the recycled fiber and any virgin fiber must be bleached without chlorine compounds (3). Before the fibers are made into new paper, they are thoroughly washed many times, so it is unlikely that chlorine will still be attached to the fibers after PCF bleaching. But minute amount of dioxins may still be expected to be found in the pulp.

Totally Chlorine Free (TCF) Bleaching

Totally Chlorine Free bleaching uses no chlorine compounds in bleaching procedure and only virgin wood pulp is used. Bleaching chemicals used – peracetic acid (CH3COOOH), oxygen (O2), ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) – produce no chlorine byproducts (3).

Dioxin

The chemical name for dioxin is 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo para dioxin (TCDD). The name ‘dioxins’ is often used for the family of chemically related polychlorinated dibenzo para dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). TCDD is the most toxic dioxin (4,11).

Common Sources of Dioxin

A human, in average, ingests most of dioxin with meat, dairy products, fish, shellfish and eggs (4,11).

Dioxin in Teabags

2,3,7,8-TCDD has been found in teabags at concentrations up to 4.79 ppt (6, page 83)

Bleached containers and filters can leach dioxins into milk, coffee, and other foods with which they come in contact (7).

Health Risk of Dioxin Exposure

Once dioxins have entered the body, they are absorbed by fat tissue. Their half-life in the body is estimated to be seven to eleven years (4). The study performed on Princeton University, USA, in y. 2003, has shown that there is no safe dose below which dioxin will not cause cancer (5).

After ingestion, dioxins accumulate in fatty tissues and disrupt the hormone system. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) scientists warned in 1994 that minute exposures to organochlorines can lead to cancer, loss of reproductive capabilities, endometriosis, developmental and behavioral disorders, learning disabilities, birth defects, and damaged immune systems (4). Fetus may absorb dioxins across the placenta and infant through their mother’s milk (8). However, TCDD does not affect DNA (4).

Who Is Sensitive to Dioxin?

All people may be harmed by small amounts of dioxin, but at most risks are:

  • Developing fetus
  • Newborn with rapidly developing organ systems

Chlorine Free Products Association

The Chlorine Free Products Association certifies papers that meet their criteria for chlorine free. It awards its PCF symbol(Processed Chlorine Free) to papers that contain a minimum of 30% recycled fibers, have not been chlorine-rebleached, and use TCF (Totally Chlorine Free) virgin pulp that did not come from old growth forests. Its TCF symbol (Totally Chlorine Free) is awarded to virgin papers meeting the same criteria (3).  PCF and TCF symbols may be found on some paper products including tea bags.

Customer Awareness

Because of increased customers awareness, many tea selling companies now use oxygen-bleached teabags instead of chlorine-bleached ones.

It is hard to say from the look of the teabag, is it bleached or not. If in doubt, and if you find this as an important issue, call the tea seller company and ask. They are usually willing to answer all questions.

Final Words about Bleached Teabags Health Risk

The following conclusion may be made from currently accessible online sources:

  1. Dioxin was found in teabags in small amounts (6).
  2. There is no minimal dose of dioxin which will not be able to cause cancer (5).
  3. There is no known study showing that people using bleached teabags actually get cancer or other diseases more often than others. For comparison, FDA (US Federal Drug Administraton) estimated that an amount of dioxin consumed by people using bleached coffee filters would theoretically generate no more than one excess incident of cancer in one million people (9).

References:

  1. Bleached vs non-bleached teabags  (thefreelibrary.com)
  2. Wood composition  (conservatree.org)
  3. Elementary chlorine as a bleacher  (conservatree.com)
  4. What are dioxins?  (who.int)
  5. Dioxin – no safe does exists  (ejnet.org)
  6. TCDD in teabags  (cdc.gov)
  7. Dioxin may leach into food  (greenpeace.org)
  8. Dioxin and breastfeeding  (healthyfamiliesnow.org)
  9. Bleached coffe filters and cancer risk  (thefreelibrary.com)
  10. Dioxin in details  (ejnet.org)
About Jan Modric (249 Articles)
Health writer
  • inky

    I found it interesting to learn that even tbags made from recycled paper has been previously chlorine bleached – would be great to see oxy or chlorine bleach clearly marked on tbags – especially tbags which are sold as organic 🙂

  • Jan Modric

    At my place you can find a margarine “without cholesterol”. So, marketers know how to convince people about what is a healthy product…

  • josie575757

    when i worked in a paper mill we had chemists comming round selling one product or another,one man told us of one mill that supplied paper for tea bags using cytogenic materials,safe if used right !!! if nothing goes wrong !!!

  • Guest

    ” The study performed on Princeton University, USA, in y. 2003, has shown that there is no safe dose below which dioxin will not cause cancer(5).” first rule of toxicology the dose make poison everything have safe lvl. Only complete icnompetent person can claim opposite.

  • Hi Darek. Agreed that the dose determines which toxin will in fact be harmful to the organism. However, these issues do become contentious from the public health perspective. For example trace amounts of arsenic have been found in rice sourced from certain regions and while it may not cause harm upon eating a single meal, it nevertheless does not detract from the fact that arsenic is still a poison.The author has stated the findings in the paper mentioned. The issue of liability always enters the fray when discussing such issues and as an online publication it is important to maintain a position on the matter that is not misleading or potentially dangerous to the reader without a thorough understanding of biochemistry.

  • Guest

    First please read about hormesis even toxin can have positive effect. Second Im toxicologist “. Agreed that the dose determines which toxin will in fact be harmful to the organism” no the dose detemines if something will be toxin, and this term I can call every substance even water, ” nevertheless does not detract from the fact that arsenic is still a poison” the same we can wrote about Vitamin D its main substance in rats poison so going your logic we should avoid her? Cant you develop other viramin toxicity? Here you have example of arsenic hormesis http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acel.12076/full About dioxin the dose can be higher than we think god example Juszczenko who was poisoned dioxin 10 ppm (20 000 times higher dose that is limit), I wrote again everything have their safe dose. I study many substance and read many articles and never find any proof that something dont have safe level.

  • Hi Guest. Thank you for your input. As previously stated the information in this article was not the writer’s assertion but taken from another source. The reference is available at the bottom of the article but if you did not spot it, the information was derived from the Energy Justice Network (here is the article http://www.ejnet.org/dioxin/). Further reading on their website will reveal that they in fact sourced some of this information from a book GREAT LAKES WATER QUALITY BOARD 102ND MEETING, CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, JULY 15, 1993, PRESENTATION BY LINDA BIRNBAUM, U.S. EPA (Washington, D.C.: International Joint Commission, Great Lakes Water Quality Board, Dec. 21, 1993). The author of the book says there is no threshold for immunotoxic responses to dioxin on page 14. If you are unsatisfied with this statement then please direct your correspondence to them. The writer of this article is no longer with our publication. We are simply a commercial publication and produce content with information derived from other sources.

  • Guest

    When you wrote article your source have 16 years, you know how much it is in science? I can found you sources from 20 century which claim that smoking is good for lungs. I understant that you commercial publication but you should checks your reference if something dont change in science like for example that earth is not flat dont this in past mainstream theory?.

  • Hi Guest. As you can see this is not a new article. Users have been commenting on it for over 6 years. We do see your point and hopefully you have also directed these concerns to our sources who still have the same information live on their websites without any changes. We have over 3,000 articles on this website and we do make changes on popular subjects. This topic is not one of them. We do rely to some extent on the input of users to highlight that there have been changes to the subject matter. Most users contribute constructively by explaining what has changed and quoting relevant sources. The comments therefore add to the content. Your point has been noted and hopefully other readers will also bear it in mind that there are safe levels now set for dioxin exposure (http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2012/February/epa-dioxins-exposure-level.asp).