Diagnostic Procedures

Cortisol Tests (Blood, Urine, Saliva)

Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands. It has diverse functions influencing nutrient metabolisms, inflammatory processes in the body and immunity. Cortisol secretion is regulated by the presence of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) which is secreted by the anterior pituitary >> Read More ...

Pericardial Effusion Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures

Pericardial effusion is an accumulation of excessive fluid in the space surrounding the heart (pericardial space). It can result from a wide variety of causes and may be present in association with almost all types of pericardial diseases. It is usually seen in inflammatory or infective conditions of the pericardium >> Read More ...

Rectal Exam Reasons and Digital Rectal Examination Procedure

What is a digital rectal examination? A rectal exam, or more accurately digital rectal examination (DRE), is an investigative procedure where a medical professional uses a gloved finger to reach the rectum via the anus and examine for abnormalities in the pelvis and lower abdomen. It is done in both men and women although >> Read More ...

Drainage of Pleural Fluid – Procedures, Tests and Results

Pleural tap A pleural tap can be performed for diagnostic purpose or for therapeutic reasons to drain the fluid around the lungs. A needle or a canula is passed into the pleural space and a small quantity, about 30 to 50 ml, of the fluid is collected for analysis. In some patients, with a small pleural effusion, this >> Read More ...

HIV Viral Load Guide : High and Low Values, Undetectable Levels

What is the viral load in HIV? Viral load is an indication of the amount of virus in the bloodstream in HIV infection. It also known as HIV viral load or plasma viral load and is an important means to monitor the progress of the disease and the success of treatment.  Regularly monitoring the viral load, at least every 3 >> Read More ...

CD4 Count – Normal (Healthy), HIV, AIDS and Zero Levels

Normal CD4 Count The CD4+ T-lymphocyte is only one type of white blood cell and is named so due to the presence of CD4 receptors on its surface. It is these surface receptors that allows HIV to bind to the cell and infect it. Read more on HIV and AIDS. Therefore HIV has an affinity for CD4+ T-lymphocytes. The level of CD4+ >> Read More ...

Ovarian Cancer Diagnosis – Blood Tests, Scans, Biopsy

Testing for Ovarian Cancer Early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is rare because of the absence of symptoms in the early stages and the lack of reliable screening methods to detect ovarian cancer specifically. A Pap smear has no role to play in the detection of ovarian cancer unless it has metastasized to the cervix or vagina. >> Read More ...

Diagnosis of Intestinal Polyps and Treatment (Surgery)

Detecting Polyps in the Intestine Colorectal polyps may be felt during digital examination of the rectum in some patients. In the event of minor blood loss (bleeding polyp), a fecal occult blood test may confirm a the presence of blood in the stool. This is, however, non-specific for intestinal polyps and other causes of >> Read More ...
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