Hormones and Metabolism

Addison Disease (Primary Adrenal Cortex Insufficiency)

Definition and Meaning of Addison Disease Addison disease is the term for primary adrenocortical insufficiency. This means that functions of the outer portion of the adrenal gland known as the cortex is impaired. The impairment is not a consequence of any other disease and is therefore referred to as primary adrenocortical >> Read More ...

Thyroid Enlargement (Goiter) from Lithium Use

Definition Lithium-induced goiter is a condition where the thyroid gland enlarges in patients using lithium. Due to the location of the thyroid gland, it causes a swelling in the neck. The condition is caused by the use of lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder. However, there are other more common causes of goiter >> Read More ...

Somatostatinomas (Somatostatin Hormone Secreting Tumors)

Somatostatinoma Definition Somatostatinomas are rare tumors of the pancreatic cells that secrete the hormone somatostatin. The pancreas is not the only location where somatostatin is produced but larger somatostatinomas are most likely to occur in the pancreas. Since this hormone has a suppressive action on most other >> Read More ...

Prolactinoma (Prolactin Hormone Secreting Tumors)

What is a prolactinoma? A prolactinoma is a tumor that secretes prolactin, the hormone that is responsible for stimulating milk production. Normally prolactin is secreted in controlled amounts by the pituitary gland, the master gland that sits at the base of the brain and controls most other glands in the body. A >> Read More ...

Glucose Intolerance (Problems with Blood Glucose Control)

What is glucose intolerance? Glucose intolerance is a broad term encompassing several conditions that leads to abnormally high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia). It is often confused with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), one of the conditions listed under the term glucose intolerance. Sometimes glucose intolerance is >> Read More ...

Calciphylaxis (Calcified Skin Blood Vessels)

What is calciphylaxis? Calciphylaxis is a condition where there is abnormal deposition of calcium in the body primarily affecting certain small blood vessels and leading to skin damage. It is also referred to as vascular calcification as the blood vessel becomes hardened due to the calcium deposition. The main blood >> Read More ...

Insulinoma (Insulin Tumors)

What is an insulinoma? An insulinoma is a rare tumor of the pancreas leading to an excess of insulin. The pancreas makes several enzymes and hormones, including the hormone insulin. In case of an insulinoma, the pancreas makes too much of insulin which can upset the normal metabolism. Insulin controls blood sugar (glucose) >> Read More ...

Luteinizing Hormone Deficiency

What is Luteinizing Hormone Deficiency? A deficiency of luteinizing hormone has pronounced effects on human reproduction. In order to understand the consequences of a deficiency of luteinizing hormone, it is important to first understand the effect of this hormone in the human body. Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone >> Read More ...

Pheochromocytoma (Rare Adrenal Gland Tumor)

Pheochromocytoma Definition A pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of the tissues of the adrenal gland. These glands sit at the top of each kidney and secrete catecholamine hormones, which regulate heart rate, body metabolism, and blood pressure. A tumor in or around the adrenal gland would result in excessive secretion of the >> Read More ...

Adrenal Adenoma (Benign Adrenal Gland Tumor)

What is an adrenal adenoma? An adrenal adenoma is a benign mass in the adrenal gland that sits on top of the kidney. Adrenal adenomas are largely non-functional meaning that it occupies space but does not secrete hormones. However, sometimes benign masses in the adrenal glands can be functional thereby causing high levels >> Read More ...
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