Hormones and Metabolism

Acromegaly – Excessive Growth Hormone in Adults

Growth hormone as the name suggests is responsible for the growth of all the tissues of the body. It is produced in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, a small pea-shaped gland at the base of the skull. The pituitary gland is commonly referred to as the master gland because it secretes various hormones that have a >> Read More ...

Diabetic Emergencies (Ketoacidosis and Coma)

The blood glucose (sugar) level is maintained with a narrow range that is sufficient for the cells to have an adequate supply of nutrition for energy production. High glucose levels can damage or even destroy cells over time while low levels will prevent cells from functioning optimally and lead to key systems in the body >> Read More ...

Diabetic Foot Pain, Ulcers, Care and Other Problems

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder where a deficiency of insulin or the unresponsiveness of cels to insulin leads to elevated blood glucose levels. Proper treatment and effective management can help delay or even avoid certain complications associated with diabetes mellitus but eventually its effects become evident. >> Read More ...

Slow Thyroid (Underactive Gland, Hypothyroidism)

The thyroid gland is the main regulator if the body’s metabolism. By the action of its thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine), the thyroid gland is able to stimulate metabolic activity, prompting the cells to take up more glucose from the bloodstream and break it down to yield energy. In the process, >> Read More ...

Slow Metabolism (Low Metabolic Rate)

The metabolism is all the chemical reactions that occur in the body to sustain life. In the process heat is generated as energy is expended. A measure of the amount of heat generated over time is a direct indication of the energy expenditure and this is known as the metabolic rate. The process of energy production requires >> Read More ...

Overactive Thyroid Gland (Hyperthyroidism, Thyrotoxicosis)

The thyroid gland is a double-lobed gland that lies just below and in front of the voice box. It resembles a fatty mass and can extend to the upper part of the chest cavity. An abnormally enlarged thyroid gland is known as a goiter and is often an indication of a diseased state. This rather unassuming gland has several >> Read More ...

Virilization (Masculinization) in Women

Male sex hormones known as androgens are present in both males and females. In men, the testes produces most of the androgens with small amounts contributed by the adrenal glands. In women, both the adrenal glands and ovaries produce androgens but the more significant quantity is the adrenal androgens. Disorders that give >> Read More ...

Cortisol Tests (Blood, Urine, Saliva)

Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the cortex of the adrenal glands. It has diverse functions influencing nutrient metabolisms, inflammatory processes in the body and immunity. Cortisol secretion is regulated by the presence of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) which is secreted by the anterior pituitary >> Read More ...

Pineal Gland Anatomy (Parts), Function and Pinealoma (Tumor)

The pineal gland does not receive much attention in medicine because there are no significant diseases or lesions that solely affect it apart from tumors. Even then, a pineal tumor referred to as a pineoloma is a rare occurrence in comparison to diseases affecting surrounding tissues and glands. For as long as the pineal >> Read More ...
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