Lungs and Airways

Process of Respiration in Humans – Diagram

What is Respiration? The process of respiration involves four stages –  ventilation which we know as breathing (inhalation or inspiration and exhalation  or expiration), exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and blood stream (pulmonary diffusion), transport of gases in the blood (perfusion) and exchange of >> Read More ...

Labored Breathing – Tests and Diagnosis

Diagnosing the cause of dyspnea depends on the clinical evaluation and the results of  investigative tests that will be conducted. Due to the various reasons for shortness of breath, some of the tests will not be directly related to the lungs. Not all the tests mentioned below will be conducted and the attending physician >> Read More ...

What Causes Shortness of Breath? Dyspnea, Difficulty Breathing

Acute Causes of Dyspnea Any difficulty breathing (dyspnea) that is of a sudden onset, developing within minutes, should be treated as emergency and immediate medical attention is necessary. Most of these acute causes are life threatening if it is not managed properly and should be overseen by a medical doctor. Shortness of >> Read More ...

Chronic Smoker’s Cough With Stabbing Sternum Chest Pain

Samansara Asked : I stopped smoking seven months ago after 40 years. I had a chronic smoker’s cough. I am still coughing but it seems worse to me. My doctor keeps telling me it is my sinus and has given me steroids, antibiotics, benzonatate to help with the cough, nasonex…….and the list goes on. Now I have a >> Read More ...

Hiccup (Singultus) and Causes of Hiccoughing

What is a Hiccup? Hiccups are the repeated involuntary spasm of the diaphragm which causes a sudden intake of air. This is followed by the abrupt closure  of the glottis (the vocal cords and space between it) which then restricts the air rushing in. These two actions, diaphragmatic spasm resulting in rapid air intake and >> Read More ...

Chest Pain with Coughing

Chest pain may be accompanied by other signs and symptoms like coughing. The pain may be due to forceful or persistent coughing, or can occur independently of the coughing. Nevertheless it is important to identify if both chest pain and coughing are related and to isolate the possible causes of both. Chest pain with >> Read More ...

Types of Influenza (Flu) Affecting Humans

Seasonal, Swine and Bird Flu in Humans Types of influenza currently appearing in humans include: Seasonal influenza, also called annual influenza, conventional influenza, common flu or human flu Swine flu, also called novel flu (in Europe), or 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 Bird flu or avian influenza Table 1: Main >> Read More ...

Lung Chest Pain

Causes of Lung Chest Pain The most common causes of pulmonary chest pain is a result of pathology within the lungs although conditions affecting the air passages may also cause chest pain. Lung chest pain may either be one side or affect both sides simultaneously and some of the common symptoms that occur along with the >> Read More ...

Pain Under Left Rib Cage

What Can Cause Pain Under the Left Ribs? Pain under the left rib cage can arise from any organ in the left upper abdomen or chest, spine, or the left ribs themselves. In otherwise healthy people, spleen irritation and gas built in the colon are main causes of pain under the lower left ribs. Pain can be also >> Read More ...
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