Lungs and Airways

Bronchiectasis Symptoms, Causes and Differences with Bronchitis

The bronchi are the air passages that lead from the trachea (windpipe) to each lung  Рright and left. It divides into smaller tubes known as bronchioles which lead straight to the air sacs of the lungs. The bronchi and bronchioles are an important site of various common respiratory diseases. When it is infected and >> Read More ...

Brown Lung Disease (Byssinosis) Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

What is brown lung disease? Brown lung disease, or byssinosis, is a reactive airway disease that leads to airway obstruction as a result of exposure to cotton dust (brack), flax and hemp. It is a type of occupational lung disease that is more commonly seen in cotton workers,  those working in flax mills and textile >> Read More ...

Occupational Asthma (Workplace Induced) Types, Symptoms, Causes

What is occupational asthma? Occupational asthma is a type of chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with allergens or irritants in the workplace that leads to reduced air flow through the respiratory passages. It is a type of asthma that should be considered in adult asthmatics, especially if the asthma >> Read More ...

Asthma Symptoms and Signs of Asthmatic Attacks

Bronchial asthma is a narrowing of the airways most commonly due to an immune-mediated hypersensitivity. As a result of swelling of the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, excess mucus production and most importantly the contraction of the wall muscles, the bronchoconstriction leads to a reduced air inflow. This >> Read More ...

Diagnosing a Pleural Effusion (X-Ray Pictures) and Treatment

A pleural effusion is the excessive accumulation of fluid between the two layers of pleura that surrounds the lungs (pleural space). There is continuous formation of fluid in the pleural cavity which is continuously reabsorbed. This is normal. The balance between secretion and reabsorption is such that only a small amount >> Read More ...

Drainage of Pleural Fluid – Procedures, Tests and Results

Pleural tap A pleural tap can be performed for diagnostic purpose or for therapeutic reasons to drain the fluid around the lungs. A needle or a canula is passed into the pleural space and a small quantity, about 30 to 50 ml, of the fluid is collected for analysis. In some patients, with a small pleural effusion, this >> Read More ...

Shortness of Breath When Lying Down, Sleeping or at Night

Difficulty breathing (dyspnea) may also be described as shortness of breath, breathlessness, uncomfortable breathing or labored breathing. It is the sensation of not being able to get sufficient air despite trying hard to breathe in deeply or rapidly. It is not uncommon to experience this sensation during periods of >> Read More ...

Empyema (Pus Around the Lungs) Causes and Symptoms

What is an empyema? The term empyema refers to the collection of pus within any anatomical cavity. It is, however, most often used to refer to pus in the pleural space (pleural empyema / empyema thoracis). Other areas of pus collection are usually designated as such, for example empyema of the sinus, referring to >> Read More ...

Lung Abscess (Pulmonary Abscesses) – Causes and Symptoms

What is a lung abscess? A lung abscess, or pulmonary abscess, is a localized collection of pus associated with necrosis of the lung tissue. The abscess is basically a cavity that forms in the lung tissue, walled off by fibrous tissue and filled with pus, cellular debris, microbes and white blood cells. A lung abscess is >> Read More ...
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