Infection of the mastoid process, a protrusion of the temporal bone of the skill, is known as mastoiditis. One of the most common causes is a result of a middle ear infection (otitis media) which spreads to the skull bone if left untreated or is severe. Most of these infections are bacterial in nature and can be effectively treated with antibiotics. However, if the desired results cannot be achieved then surgery may be necessary. The most commonly performed procedures in the treatment of mastoiditis are myringotomy and mastoidectomy.
Surgery and Other Procedures's Articles Archives
What is a root canal?
Root canal therapy, commonly referred to simply as a root canal, is a dental procedure for repairing and salvaging a badly decayed or an infected tooth. The root canal procedure involves removal of infected and decaying debris within the pulp of the tooth, thorough cleaning, and sealing of the tooth cavity with synthetic materials. This procedure helps to relieve the unbearable pain associated with tooth decay, to prevent further spread of the decay, and also to halt the spread of infection to the surrounding normal tissue. The procedure is usually performed by a dental surgeon or an endodontist. An endodontist is a dental surgeon who is specialized in management of diseases of dental pulp and nerve.
Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal graft or keratoplasty, is usually done when there is loss of vision in one eye due to damage to the cornea as a result of disease or injury. The cornea is the transparent layer of tissue in front of the eye. When the cornea becomes cloudy, light cannot enter the eye sufficiently well, thus causing poor vision or blindness. Corneal transplant is one of the most commonly performed transplant surgeries where the damaged cornea is replaced by corneal tissue obtained from another human eye. The corneal tissue for transplant should be taken soon after death of the donor. Overall, a corneal transplant usually has a good outcome but graft rejection may be an undesirable complication.
Refractive eye surgery includes a number of procedures aimed at altering the parts of the eye that bend light, namely the cornea on the outside and lens in the eyeball. It is these errors in refraction that cause the most common vision problems – myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism. This has reduced the need for and inconveniences associated with the use of eyeglasses and contact lenses to correct these refractive errors. However, it has not totally removed the need for these other corrective measures as some persons may still require eyeglasses and contact lens for optimal visual acuity. Refractive eye surgery was drastically improved with the advent of the excimer laser that allowed for laser-based procedures such as LASIK, LASEK and PRT which are now more commonly done. Nevertheless there are several other, non-laser procedures that can be done to correct refractive errors of the eye.
Refractive eye surgery was revolutionized with the introduction of excimer laser-based procedures. Overall, laser-based procedures dramatically improved the outcome, cost effectiveness and popularity of refractive surgeries thereby making it a viable choice for correcting these common vision problems. A number of surgical procedures are currently in use for correcting myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism. However the surgical correction of presbyopia is still not well developed.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the a chronic inflammatory disorder of the bowels characterized by periods of acute flareups (active) and mildly symptomatic or asymptomatatic periods (remission). The two main types of inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are largely the same but there is distinct differences in the distribution, histopathology and clinical features. Ulcerative colitis, the more common form of IBD, is isolated to the rectum and colon whereas Crohn’s disease which mainly involves the colon and ileum of the small intestine may affect any part of the alimentary tract. Inflammatory bowel disease is a difficult condition to treat and manage and both surgical and medical treatment (the use of medication) is primarily directed at reducing the severity of symptoms during active phases and decreasing the frequency of these flareups.
Dialysis is the procedure of removing waste products, excess water and balancing the electrolyte levels of the blood in the manner that the kidney would do. It is necessary for patients with kidney disorders – either acute disorders where kidney functioning is impaired but will be restored with treatment (short term) and time or in those patients with chronic kidney disease where only a kidney transplant will restore normal functioning (long term). Dialysis is a life-saving technique to filter the blood but cannot restore complete health to the patient. There are two methods for dialysis – hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
One of the most important functions of the kidneys in a healthy individual is to filter and remove harmful waste products from the blood. Furthermore, by regulating the amount of urine excreted, the kidneys can help to maintain the fluid balance of the body. Blood electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate levels are maintained by healthy kidneys, which are also important in controlling blood pressure. However, in circumstances where the kidneys are unable to perform these functions due a person developing end-stage kidney failure, there are usually two options available – kidney transplant or renal dialysis, which come under the term renal replacement therapy.
Glaucoma is condition characterized by progressive optic nerve damage and is very often due an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP). It cannot be cured but early detection and treatment can help to prevent vision loss and blindness, primarily by reducing the intraocular pressure (IOP). Medication in the form of eye drops or oral drugs are the first line of treatment. If these cannot be used or fail to give the desired results, the various surgical methods may be considered.
Glaucoma refers to a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerves due to gradually increasing pressure within the eye, the intraocular pressure (IOP). Glaucoma can develop in one or both eyes. Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness, yet many people are unaware that they have this condition since the vision impairment may be painless as well as insidious. For this reason, a regular eye examination is extremely important, particularly if there is a family history of glaucoma, since early diagnosis and treatment can often help to preserve vision.
Cataract surgery involves removal of the cloudy lens and replacing it with an artificial lens. Not all cataract cases require surgery. However, surgery is the only effective treatment option in advanced cataract causing problems with routine activities such as driving, reading, cooking, watching television, and so on. Cataract surgery is done on an outpatient basis, usually under local anesthesia, and normally gives yields good results regarding improvement of vision. General anesthesia may occasionally be used and is the preferred option in children. It is a relatively safe surgery but occasional complications may include infection and bleeding. The risk of retinal detachment is slightly increased following cataract surgery.
continue reading Cataract Lens Removal and Replacement Surgery Procedure Guide
The lens of the eye needs to be clear so that light can pass through it uninhibited and cast an image on the back of the eye (retina). Clouding or opacification of the lens of the eye, which is clear under normal circumstances, is known as a cataract. This usually develops over a long time, impairing vision and may ultimately lead to blindness if left untreated. Cataracts are most commonly seen in older people (senile cataracts) but congenital cataracts may be present at birth. The other types of cataracts that may be seen are traumatic cataracts that may occur after an injury to the eye, and secondary cataracts such as those occurring due to a medical condition such as diabetes. Cataracts may develop in one or both eyes.
Neuritis is the term for inflammation of the nerve. It may be due to a number of causes including mechanical trauma, chemical injury, nutritional deficiencies, infections, inherited disorders and systemic diseases. Inflammation of a sensory nerves may present with numbness, tingling, abnormal sensations or pain. When the motor nerves are affected, symptoms may involve muscle weakness or even paralysis in severe cases. Some nerves are mixed nerves meaning that both sensory and motor fibers are affected leading to a complex of symptoms. Since the symptoms of neuritis are non-specific for the cause, various diagnostic investigations may first have to be considered. Treatment would then depend on the causative factor and underlying diseases.
Pericardial effusion is an accumulation of excessive fluid in the space surrounding the heart (pericardial space). It can result from a wide variety of causes and may be present in association with almost all types of pericardial diseases. It is usually seen in inflammatory or infective conditions of the pericardium (pericarditis). The accumulation of fluid in pericardial space to levels that affect the functioning of the heart is called a cardiac tamponade.
continue reading Pericardial Effusion Diagnosis and Treatment Procedures
What is Vacuum Extraction or Ventouse Delivery?
Vacuum extraction or ventouse delivery is a procedure where an instrument known as the vacuum extractor or ventouse is used to assist and speed up delivery. A suction cap is applied to the baby’s head and gentle intermittent traction is given simultaneously with the uterine contractions and the mother’s bearing-down efforts.
What is Forceps Delivery?
Forceps delivery is a form of assisted delivery or operative delivery where active measures are taken to accomplish vaginal delivery by means of an instrument known as the obstetric forceps. Simply, the forceps are used to help with the delivery of the baby through the vagina. This form of delivery has been an important part of obstetric practice for nearly 400 years. This procedure is best used by a skilled obstetrician only when there is a clear indication for its use. It aims to avoid a difficult vaginal delivery which may be harmful to the mother or baby.
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