The human gut, also referred to as the alimentary tract, is a long hollow organ that extends from the mouth to the anus. The longest part of the alimentary tract lies between the stomach and anus – it is known as the intestines or bowel. Broadly, the intestines are made up of the small intestine and large intestine which are responsible for digestion, absorption and waste expulsion from the body. The small intestine is about 6 meters long while the large intestine is about 1.5 meters in length. Of the two intestines, the small intestine is the narrower segment.
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The blood vessels of the body are the conduits for blood to travel to and from the heart. Arteries carry oxygen rich blood from the heart to various tissues while veins return it to the heart so that it can be routed to the lungs for oxygenation. Blood vessels are prone to many of the same diseases that affect any other tissues in the body. Although its primary function, which is the transport of blood, may be affected to varying degrees the target organs may also be impaired. This can lead to a host of signs and symptoms associated with decreased blood supply to a specific organ which is impairs its functionality.
continue reading Takayasu Arteritis (Pulseless Disease), Large Artery Disease
Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts against the walls of the vessels it travels through it. Arterial pressure, that is the pressure within arteries which are the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrient-rich blood through the body, and it is higher than venous pressure (pressure in the veins). There are several mechanisms in the body to regulate blood pressure which involves major organs and even individual tissues in the body.
It is a combination of water volume, size of the blood vessel lumen and rate and force of heart contraction. When one or more of these systems are disturbed, the blood pressure is also affected leading to a rise or fall in blood pressure. If these changes are sustained, a person is said to have high blood pressure (hypertension) or low blood pressure (hypotension). Given the prevalence and often disastrous consequences of high blood pressure, most of us consider low blood pressure to be a benign condition. However, low blood pressure can have equally devastating effects on the body and even lead to death in severe cases.
A stroke is a major life-threatening emergency that requires rapid diagnosis and management. This can go a long way in helping to reduce permanent disability and even preventing death. The therapeutic approach to the two major types of stroke, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke, differs and therefore proper diagnosis at the earliest possible time is essential. Treatment and management involves a combination of medication, rehabilitation and education for both the patient and caregivers.
Human speech depends on three stages – thinking of the words to be spoken (conceptualization), recalling the manner in which these words are formed (formulation) and then speaking it (vocalization). The words that are spoken depends on multiple factors including the thought or emotion at the time, input from the other senses and the manner in which it is processed and the setting.
In order to vocalize, a person has to generate sound from the voice box (phonation) and then form words from the movement of the tongue, lips and mouth (articulation). When there is a problem with creating sound from the voice box then this is known as dysphonia. It may lead to a disturbance in voice quality, volume or pitch which often presents as a whisper or even hoarse voice. When the problem lies with forming words (articulation) then it is known as dysarthria. It usually presents as slurred, distorted speech or mumbling.