What is insulin?
Insulin is a hormone secreted from beta cells of the pancreas. It helps to control the blood glucose levels preventing hyperglycemia (high glucose levels) which can damage the cells. In diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes), there may be a lack of or deficiency of insulin thereby leading to abnormal fluctuations in blood glucose levels and hyperglycemia. Insulin exerts its effects by binding to insulin receptors present on the cell surface of organs sensitive to insulin like liver, muscles and fat tissue. The binding of insulin to its receptors results in activation of an enzyme known as tyrosine kinase which leads to reactions inside the cell that are responsible for various effects of insulin.