ABCD – First Aid: Injuries, Poisoning

Botulism (Botulinum Toxin Poisoning)

What is botulism? Botulism is a medical condition caused by nerve toxins (neurotoxins) produced by a specific type of bacteria known as Clostridium botulinum. This neurotoxin blocks nerve impulses thereby leading to muscle weakness and paralysis. It is potentially fatal as it can lead to respiratory arrest. Botulism is >> Read More ...

Foreign Body Aspiration (Object Blocking the Airways)

What is foreign body aspiration? Foreign body aspiration is a medical emergency that arises when an object enters the airways. Depending on the size of the object, either a solid or semi-solid, it may obstruct the airways. A significant or complete obstruction can be life-threatening within minutes. Smaller objects may >> Read More ...

Toluene Inhalation, Toxicity and “Glue Sniffing” Addiction

What is toluene? Toluene (methyl benzene) is a chemical that is widely used in various substances within the home such as glue, paint and paint removers, and polish. It is also widely used for various industrial purposes. Toluene is volatile meaning that it disperses into the air and can thereby be inhaled. In high doses, >> Read More ...

Cold Injury (Freezing and Non-Freezing Damage)

What is a cold injury? A cold injury is any disruption of internal processes, damage or death to tissue and associated complications that results from exposure to cold. This includes cold weather, cold water, snow, ice and liquid gas. Although the body has various means to tolerate and cope with cold, minimize damage and >> Read More ...

Pancreas Injury (Trauma to the Pancreatic Gland)

Pancreatic Trauma Definition The term pancreatic trauma refers to injury of the pancreas, the elongated gland that sits in the upper middle quadrant of the abdomen. This can occur with blunt force trauma or sharp penetrating injuries. The pancreas is among the more commonly injured organ as it has very limited protection >> Read More ...

Argyria (Silver Toxicity)

What is argyria? Argyria is a condition caused by prolonged contact with silver or consuming silver in food and fluids. Less commonly, excessive and prolonged use of drugs containing small amounts of silver may also lead to agyria, as well as the use of silver during certain surgical and dental procedures. The exposure to >> Read More ...

Heat Illness (Excess Body Heat Sickness)

What is heat illness? Heat illness or more correctly heat-related illness is a broad term to describe any disturbance that arises in the body as a result of heat. It is commonly known as excessive body heat or hyperthermia. As the temperature rises there are various symptoms that will be seen as a result of the heat. There >> Read More ...

Electric Shock Injury and Electrical Burns First Aid

What is an electrical shock? An electrical shock is an injury that occurs when the body comes into contact with a source of electrical energy. The severity of the electrical shock is dependent on several factors such as the : the voltage of the electrical source, the type of current – direct or alternating current, >> Read More ...

Alcohol Poisoning and Toxicity with Different Types of Alcohols

What is alcohol poisoning? Alcohol poisoning is a serious problem that can occur with drinking excessive amounts of alcoholic beverages in a short period of time. The quantity of the alcohol consumed and its byproducts after being metabolized may be toxic to the body. It can therefore result in several systems in the body >> Read More ...

Ecstasy Effects, Toxicity and Death, MDMA Overdose Symptoms

With the increasing use of ecstasy (MDMA) as a recreational drug, overdosing is fairly common. Ecstasy is an illicit drug, often used in combination with other drugs, which greatly increases the risk of toxicity. There is no such thing as a safe dose of the drug and even a minimum amount can produce toxicity and death. It >> Read More ...
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