Heart and Vessels

Cocaine-Induced Heart Problems

Cocaine and the Heart Cocaine is a potent illicit stimulant produced from the leaves of the coca plant. It is widely used in the powder form which is inhaled or in the chunky form which is smoked (crack cocaine). Cocaine is often mixed with other substances to ‘cut’ the pure drug, thereby diluting it. Sometimes >> Read More ...

Cardiac Tamponade (Fluid Pressing on the Heart)

What is a cardiac tamponade? Cardiac tamponade is a condition where the accumulation of fluid around the heart hampers its filling and circulation of blood. The fluid that collects around the heart can either be blood, serous tissue fluid, pus or lymph with fat droplets. Sometimes a solid mass or even gas can restrict the >> Read More ...

Prinzmetal’s Angina (Coronary Artery Spasm)

What is Prinzmetal’s angina? Prinzmetal’s angina is cardiac pain caused by an inadequate blood supply (ischemia) as a result spasm of the coronary artery. It is just one type of angina pectoris – heart pain caused by the inadequate flow of blood to the heart muscle. The coronary arteries carry oxygen-rich >> Read More ...

Milroy Disease (Lymph Swelling from Birth)

What is Milroy Disease? Milroy disease is a condition where there is a problem with lymph drainage and subsequent swelling of the soft tissues (lymphedema) present from birth (congenital). It is a genetic disorder where a mutated gene is inherited from at least one parent but there are instances where there is no known >> Read More ...

Aortic Regurgitation (Valve Insufficiency)

What is aortic regurgitation? Aortic regurgitation is a condition where blood flows backward back from the aorta into the heart when the ventricles relax. Backward flow (regurgitation) is prevented by the aortic valve. In other words it ensures blood only flows in one direction – from the left ventricle into the >> Read More ...

Atrioventricular (Heart) Dissociation

What is atrioventricular dissociation? Atrioventricular (AV) dissociation refers to the condition of the heart where the heart chambers do not work in a synchronous manner but contract independently The heart is a four-chambered organ made up of two atria at the top and two ventricles below it. The left and right atria >> Read More ...

Brugada Syndrome (Heart Rhythm Disorder)

Brugada Syndrome Definition Brugada syndrome is  an inherited life-threatening condition where there is a disorder with the heart rhythm that leads to sudden death. The condition is characterized by a distinct abnormal heartbeat known as Brugada sign which can be detected on an electrocardiogram (ECG). Brugada syndrome >> Read More ...

Vertebral Artery Dissection (VAD)

Vertebral Artery Dissection Definition Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a condition where blood collects within the walls of the vertebral artery and hampers blood flow through it. Since the vertebral arteries carry oxygen rich blood to the brain, most symptoms are a result of reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to >> Read More ...

Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)

Supraventricular Tachycardia Definition Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a condition where there heart beats rapidly (tachycardia) due to electrical impulses originating the region above the heart’s ventricles, the chambers that push blood of the heart. It is also known as paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia >> Read More ...

Venous Air Embolism (Air Bubble in the Veins)

What is venous air embolism? Venous air embolism is when air enters the blood circulating back to the heart. It is not a common condition but has serious and severe consequences – it may even lead to death. Most cases of venous air embolism arises with medical procedures, hence the term ‘iatrogenic’. It >> Read More ...
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