Lungs and Airways

Pneumonia (Inflamed Lung) Types, Cough, Symptoms, Risks

What is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is any disease that causes inflammation of the lung tissue, particularly the air sacs (alveoli) of the lung. It is a fairly common respiratory disease that can be life threatening. Most cases of pneumonia are due to infectious causes, with bacterial pneumonia being the most common, followed by >> Read More ...

Cough Reflex – Physiology, Process, Ear-Cough Reflexes

Coughing is a reflex mechanism by which the body rids the lower respiratory tract of any irritant that enters through the air and less frequently any fluids (drinks) and solids (food) that may spill into the respiratory tract. Coughing can be initiated voluntarily but lacks the force and pressure as when triggered by the >> Read More ...

Tracheitis (Trachea Infection) and Laryngitis (Larynx Infection)

What is Tracheitis? Tracheitis is the inflammation of the windpipe (trachea). Most cases of tracheitis are due to a bacterial infection, however, a number of other factors, both infectious and non-infectious, may also cause inflammation of the trachea. Usually these other factors do not affect the trachea in isolation but >> Read More ...

Bronchitis (Acute , Chronic) Causes and Symptoms

What is Bronchitis? Bronchitis is the medical term for inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tree, including the bronchi and/or bronchioles. It often involves the terminal part of the trachea as well. The walls of the bronchi and/or bronchioles become swollen due to inflammation and secrete excessive amounts of >> Read More ...

What are the Bronchi? Left, Right Main Bronchus, Bronchioles

The bronchi (singular ~ bronchus) are the two branches (left and right) at the bottom of the trachea that lead into the lungs. These main bronchi then divide into lobar and segmental bronchi. Together the trachea and the main left and right bronchi, along with all its subdivisions, areĀ  referred to as a the >> Read More ...

Abnormal Breathing Sounds – Types and Causes

Abnormal breathing sounds differs in quality from the normal hollow, rustling sound that is heard as air passes through the large airways like the pharynx, larynx and trachea (bronchial breathing) and resonates in the bronchial tree and lungs (vesicular breathing). Abnormal sounds may resemble a musical wind instrument or >> Read More ...

Noisy Breathing | Causes of Normal, Loud, Soft Breath Sounds

Normal Breath Sounds What is bronchial breathing sounds? Normal breathing is not a silent process. Air flow through the large airways is turbulent and causes a rustling or blowing type of sound. It is most prominent in the upper respiratory tract (nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx) and the upper part of the lower >> Read More ...

Pertussis Tests and Treatment (Medication, Hospitalization)

Pertussis (whooping cough) closely resembles many other upper and lower respiratory tract infections and a proper diagnosis is essential in order to commence with the appropriate treatment as soon as possible. Many cases of pertussis are initially misdiagnosed for more common respiratory tract infections. It is only upon >> Read More ...
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