List of Human Body Parasites – Symptoms, Pictures

Intestinal Parasites

Unicellular Parasites (Protozoa)

PARASITE / DISEASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSMISSION SYMPTOMS and SIGNS
Balantidium coli, balantidiasis worldwide/rural contact with pigs, infected water severe diarrhea
Blastocystis hominis, blastocystosis worldwide stool to mouth none or mild diarrhea
Cryptosporidium, cyptosporidiosis (crypto) worldwide stool to mouth, contaminated water diarrhea
Cyclospora cayetanensis, cyclosporiasis hot climates contaminated water/food diarrhea
Entamoeba histolytica, amebiasis tropical/rural stool to mouth diarrhea, rarely systemic infection
Giardia lamblia, giardiasis worldwide stool to mouth diarrhea
Isospora belli, coccidiosis worldwide dog/cat puppies feces; persons with low immunity diarrhea
Microsporidia, microsporidiosis worldwide ingestion, inhalation, person to person contact, persons with low-immunity (AIDS) chronic diarrhea, gallbladder infection, eye irritation


More about intestinal parasites: pictures, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Intestinal Worms

 PARASITE / DISEASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSMISSION SYMPTOMS and SIGNS
ROUNDWORMS (Nematoda):
Anisaxis simplex; 1 inch; anisakiasis worldwide, Japan undercooked saltwater fish, sushi vomiting, diarrhea, diagnosis with upper endoscopy
Ascaris lumbricoides; up to 12 inches; ascariasis warm climates, south/rural US stool-to-mouth, contaminated food worms in the stool, abdominal pain or cough
Hookworms: Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus; 1/2 inch warm climates walking barefoot, swallowing soil skin rash on the foot, diarrhea or cough
Enterobius vermicularis, pinworm, seatworm, threadworm; 1/2 inch; enterobiasis worldwide stool-to-mouth anal itch
Strongyloides stercoralis; threadworm; 2 mm; strongyloidiasis warm climates, south US walking barefoot foot itch, mild diarrhea, cough
Trichinella spiralis; 1-3 mm; trichinellosis (trichinosis) worldwide/rural non-commercial pork diarrhea, headache, muscle pains, chills, eye swelling
Whipworms: Trichuris trichiura; 2mm;trichuriasis worldwide/warm climates, south US/rural stool-to-mouth, ingesting dry beans diarrhea
TAPEWORMS (Cestoda):
Diphyllobothrium latum, fish tapeworm, 10 meters North hemisphere raw fish diarrhea
Dipylidium caninum, dog tapeworm, 20 inches worldwide ingesting dog/cat fleas, children diarrhea
Hymenolepis nana, dwarf tapeworm; 1-2 inches worldwide, temperate climates stool-to-mouth diarrhea, itchy bottom
Taenia saginata, beef tapeworm; several meters worldwide raw/undercooked beef nausea, irritation of anus, crawling segments in stool
Taenia solium, pork tapeworm; several meters, cysticercosis worldwide/rural undercooked pork meat, stool-to-mouth diarrhea

More about intestinal worms: pictures, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Intestinal Flukes or FLATWORMS (Trematoda)

 PARASITE / DISEASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSMISSION SYMPTOMS and SIGNS
Fasciolopsis buski; 1-3 inches China, south Asia ingesting water plants infected by pig stool diarrhea, abdominal pain
Metagonimus yokogawai; 1/2 mm Siberia, Balkan, Spain undercooked freshwater fish diarrhea, abdominal pain
Paragonimus Africa, south Asia, South America raw crustaceans diarrhea, cough
Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni, bilharzia Africa, South America, Middle East, south Asia; not in US swimming in freshwater itchy rash, after 1-2 months: fever, cough; years: blood in urine (parasites live in veins around bladder and intestine)

Liver Parasites

 PARASITE / DISEASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSMISSION SYMPTOMS and SIGNS
FLUKES or FLATWORMS(Trematoda):
Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, Chinese liver fluke; 2-25 mm east Asia undercooked fish lives in bile duct, RUQ abdominal cramps, jaundice
Fasciola hepatica, sheep liver fluke Europe, Middle East, Asia raw watercress in sheep/cattle raising areas lives in bile duct, fever, abdominal pain
TAPEWORMS (Cestoda):
Echinococcus multilocularis, hydatid disease Europe, North America, Asia stool-to-mouth, feces of cats, foxes, coyotes liver cysts, weight loss, RUQ abdominal pain

Skin Parasites

 PARASITE / DISEASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSMISSION SYMPTOMS and SIGNS
Bedbug, red, flat, non-flying insect; 5-7 mm worldwide bedlining, clothes itchy rash, few bumps in a row
Bot fly (human), Dermatobia hominis Central and South America mosqitoes transmit bot fly eggs painful, raised oozing bumps with a larva underneath
LICE:
Body louse, Pediculus humanus corpori, 3mm worldwide clothes itchy red bite marks
Head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, white/gray, 2-3 mm worldwide person-to-person itchy scalp, lice attached to hair
Pubic (crab) louse, Phthirus pubis; 2mm worldwide skin-to-skin or sexual contact itchy pubic area
MITES:
Chiggers, harvest mites, red bugs, 1mm worldwide walking in grass itchy red bumps on legs
Demodex folliculorum, face mites; 0,1-0,4 mm worldwide live in scalp/facial hair follicles in most people itchy scalp, eyebrows, acne rosacea, hair loss
Dust mites worldwide house dust itchy rash
Scabies mites, Sarcoptes scabiei worldwide skin-to-skin contact itchy rash
FLEAS: cat (Xenopsylla cheopis), human (Pulex irritans), dog, rat, black, 1-4 mm worldwide contact with pets three itchy bumps in a row
TICKS, several species, 3-10 mm worldwide walking in woods blood sucking tick firmly attached to skin
Cutaneus larva migrans (CLM), roudworm warm climates walking barefoot ground itch, creeping eruption
OTHER:
Dracunculus medinensis, roundworm; 80 cm,Guinea worm disease west Africa drinking contaminated stagnant water painful skin ulcers
Leishmania, unicellular parasite, cutaneus leishmaniasis, Balkan sore, Delhi boil warm climates, south/rural US sandfly bite skin boils
Loa loa filaria,roundworm, loiasis West Africa Deer fly red skin (Calabar) swelling, eye pain
Onchocerca volvulus, roundworm (filaria), onchocerciasis, river blindness Africa, Central America, near rivers blackfly bite itchy skin nodules, de/pigmentations, enlarged lymph nodes
Swimmer’s itch, cercarial dermatitis, caused by various parasites worldwide fresh or marine coastal water itchy red bumps

More about dust and skin mites and itchy skin in general.

Blood Parasites

 PARASITE / DISEASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSMISSION SYMPTOMS and SIGNS
Babesia, babesiosis US (north/mid) ticks red cells, flu-like symptoms, jaundice
Plasmodium, malaria south Asia, sub-saharian Africa mosquito bite high fever, shaking chills
Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni, bloof flukes, bilharzia Africa, South America, Middle East, south Asia; not in US swimming in freshwater itchy rash, after 1-2 months: fever, cough; years: blood in urine (parasites live in veins around bladder and intestine)
Trypanosoma brucei, African sleeping sickness Africa tsetse fly fever, headaches, joint pains, itching, drowsiness

Lymph Parasites

 PARASITE / DISEASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSMISSION SYMPTOMS and SIGNS
Wuchereria bancrofti, microscopic roundworm, lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) tropics, NOT in US mosquito bite swollen leg, scrotum, arm, breast, skin rash, blindness
Onchocerca volvulus, onchocerciasis (river blindness) Africa, Central America blackfly bite enlarged lymph nodes in groin, skin nodules

Parasites in Internal Organs

 PARASITE / DISEASE DISTRIBUTION TRANSMISSION SIGNS and SYMPTOMS
BRAIN:
Taenia solium, pork tapeworm, cysticercosis worldwide/rural undercooked pork meat, stool-to-mouth neurocysticercosis with headache, seizures, eyes
Echinococcus granulosus and multilocularis, tapeworm; hydatid disease Mediterran, Middle East, South America, Iceland, Australia, New Zealand, southern parts of Africa dog feces seizures, other neurological symptoms
EYE:
Acanthamoeba, unicellular worldwide swimming with contact lenses in pools or freshwater eye irritation (keratitis); granulomatose amebic encephalitis (GAE): seizures, hemiparesis
Onchocerca volvulus, roundworm (filaria), onchocerciasis, river blindness Africa, Central America blackfly bite itchy skin nodules, de/pigmentations, enlarged lymph nodes, blindness (keratitis)
Microsporidia worldwide ingestion, inhalation, person-to-person contact, persons with low-immunity (AIDS) eye (cornea) irritation
KIDNEY:
Dioctophyme renale, giant kidney worm (roundworm); up to 40 cm worldwide undercooked/raw freshwater fish or frogs enlarged, painful kidney on one side, blood in urine
LUNGS:
Paragonimus westermani, lung fluke, 1cm N and S America, Africa, southeast Asia raw/undercooked seafood coughing up blood
Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously P. caninii) is now classified as fungus, pneumonia worldwide sneezing, coughing; in persons with low immunity (AIDS) fever, night sweats, dry cough, weight loss
NOSE:
Rhinosporidium seeberi, rhinosporidiosis south India, Africa, south US, South America working or bathing in standing water (lakes) blocked nose on one side, nosebleeds, polyps in the nose
VAGINA:
Trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis worldwide sexually transmitted vaginal discharge
VARIOUS ORGANS:
Baylisascaris, racoon roundworm north/mid US soil/water, hunters nausea, tiredness, liver enlargement, loss of coordination, lack of attention, blindness, coma
Echinococcus granulosus and multilocularis, tapeworm; hydatid disease Mediterran, Middle East, South America, Iceland, Australia, New Zealand, southern parts of Africa dog feces jaundice, abdominal presure, low-grade fever, cough…due to cysts (1-15 inches) in liver, lungs, muscles, kidneys..
Leishmania, unicellular parasite, visceral leishmaniasis, Kala azar sub/tropics, south Europe sandfly bite fever, enlarged liver/spleen, dark skin
Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni, bloof flukes, schistosomiasis, bilharzia Africa, South America, Middle East, south Asia; not in US swimming in freshwater itchy rash, after 1-2 months: fever, cough; years: blood in urine, bloody diarrhea (parasites in bladder/intestine veins)
Taenia solium, pork tapeworm, cysticercosis worldwide/rural undercooked pork meat, stool-to-mouth neurocysticercosis with headache, seizures, eyes
Toxocara canis, T. cati, roundworm, visceral and ocular larva migrans worldwide dog/cat puppies stool fever, coughing, blindness
Toxoplasma gondii, unicellular parasite, toxoplasmosis worldwide cat feces, contaminated meat, mother-to-child miscariage, swollen glands, bluured vision, eye pain, headache, lungs, liver
Trichinella spiralis, roundworm, trichinellosis or trichinosis worldwide/rural noncommercial pork meat diarrhea, headache, muscle pains, chills, eye swelling
Trypanosoma cruzi, American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease Central and South America triatomine bug bite, contaminated food fever, malaise, red skin swelling, swollen eye, digestive problems, enlarged nodes, liver/spleen, rapid heartbeat

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References:

  1. Parasitic diseases: transmission, symptoms, pictures, treatment (cdc.gov)

About Jan Modric (249 Articles)
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