Bones, Joints, Muscles and Connective Tissue Diseases

Parts of the Spine – Anatomy, Picture, Spinal Column, Backbone

The vertebral column is the most important collection of bones to maintain stability of the skeletal structure and support of the entire body, especially when upright. It is made up of 33 bones, known as vertebra (plural ~ vertebrae), which may be fused at certain points, like in the lower parts of the spinal column. The >> Read More ...

Plantar Calcaneal Spur – Foot Heel Bone and Sole Pain

A plantar calcaneal spur is an outgrowth from the bone at the back of the foot known as the calcaneus. This outgrowth is the cause of severe discomfort on the sole of the foot (plantar surface) and pain and is commonly known as heel spur pain. These spurs may develop over a long period of time and are initially >> Read More ...

Causes of Breast Bone Pain (Sternum)

The breast bone, also known as the sternum, is a flat bone located in the middle of the thorax (chest) and serves two important functions in the body. Firstly, the breast bone protects the vital organs lying behind it, primarily the heart and airways, and secondly, it serves as a central point where the ribs and shoulder >> Read More ...

Calf Pain

What Is the Calf? The calf is a back part of the lower leg – between the knee and ankle. Causes of Calf Pain Pain in the calf may arise from: Calf muscles: exercise, injury, mineral deficiencies, dermatomyositis Injury or inflammation of Achilles tendon Nerves: pinched sciatic nerve (read about sciatic nerve >> Read More ...

Sciatic Nerve Pain – Causes and Symptoms

What Is Sciatica? Sciatic pain (sciatica) is a pain in the lower back, buttock, leg and/or foot, usually on one side at a time, caused by one of disorders affecting the sciatic nerve: Pinched nerve due to: Bulging or herniated disc Degeneration disc disease (DDD) Spinal stenosis (narrow spinal canal) Fracture of one or >> Read More ...

Treatment & Management of Leg Cramps at Night

Treatment of Leg & Foot Cramps Treatment should be directed at the possible causes of leg cramps at night if it is suspected that the condition is occurring as a symptom of one of the causes or risk factors. However, nocturnal leg cramps as a parasomnia disorder is not treatable and the exact cause is unknown therefore >> Read More ...

Risk Factors & Causes of Severe Leg Cramps at Night

The exact cause of nocturnal leg cramps is unknown (idiopathic). However certain individuals with chronic conditions may be at risk of leg cramps at night. Nocturnal leg cramps are more common in older persons, especially women, and primarily affects the calf muscles and small muscles of the feet. Leg cramps may occur as a >> Read More ...

What is Nocturnal Leg Cramping? Leg Cramps at Night

Nocturnal leg cramps are the painful cramping of muscles, usually the calf muscles, which commonly occurs during sleep. In some cases, night leg cramps may occur while the sufferer is in bed and between the sleep-wake stage. Nocturnal leg cramps are considered to be one of the parasomnia disorders that affect a >> Read More ...
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