A heart attack (myocardial infarction) is death of a portion of the muscular heart wall as a result of severely reduced blood supply. It is most commonly due to a blockage in the coronary artery which supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart wall. An occlusion that causes injury but not death to the heart wall over a period of time is known as ischemic heart disease (IHD). With a myocardial infarction, the already occluded coronary artery is suddenly blocked almost completely most often by the formation of a blood clot at the site of the narrowing. Severe pain arises which is not relived by rest or nitrates as is used for the relief of angina. There are prominent ST changes in the ECG and the incident is more accurately described as ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Other indicators may include significantly elevated cardiac markers (enzymes) of ischemia which can be found in the blood
Angina pectoris is the most common type of ischemic heart disease. Decreased blood flow to the heart muscle, usually at times of increased cardiac demand, elicits pain that is relieved upon rest or with the use of nitrates. The blood supply to the heart is compromised, most often due to coronary artery disease. Increase in the demand for oxygen is usually the cause for ischemia in stable (exertional) angina. The ischemia in some forms of angina (like Prinzmetal’s angina) results from reduction in oxygen supply. In some patients it may be due to a mixed effect of reduced supply and increased demand. The diagnosis of angina is primarily clinical. The supporting evidence with diagnostic tests is significant only at later stages.
continue reading Angina Pain Relief – Medication and Treatments (Angina Pectoris)
There are several types of drugs to treat hypertension and the use of each is dependent on the severity, duration and type of hypertension. Other underlying diseases also have to be taken into account when prescribing the most appropriate antihypertensive drug, even if the condition is not directly contributing to the raised blood pressure. Antihypertensive drugs work by either reducing the peripheral vascular resistance, cardiac output and/or fluid volume in the body.
Neuritis is the term for inflammation of the nerve. It may be due to a number of causes including mechanical trauma, chemical injury, nutritional deficiencies, infections, inherited disorders and systemic diseases. Inflammation of a sensory nerves may present with numbness, tingling, abnormal sensations or pain. When the motor nerves are affected, symptoms may involve muscle weakness or even paralysis in severe cases. Some nerves are mixed nerves meaning that both sensory and motor fibers are affected leading to a complex of symptoms. Since the symptoms of neuritis are non-specific for the cause, various diagnostic investigations may first have to be considered. Treatment would then depend on the causative factor and underlying diseases.
The basic aim of treatment of an injured nerve is to restore its function to the best extent possible. In patients whom it is not practically possible, the treatment is aimed at improving the quality of life to the maximum that can be attained. This also requires proper management of the injuries sustained by other tissues like reduction fracture or dislocation.