Kidneys and Urinary Tract

Hyperoxaluria (High Oxalate Levels in the Urine)

Definition Hyperoxaluria is the term for high levels of oxalate in the urine. It is normal to pass oxalate in the urine but these levels are lower than 40mg (milligrams) per day. In hyperoxaluria the urinary oxalate levels exceed 40mg within a 24 hour period. The oxalate is produced within the body and/or sourced from >> Read More ...

Lithium Induced Kidney Disease (Nephropathy)

What is lithium nephropathy? Lithium nephropathy is a kidney disease that occurs as a result of using lithium. Although trace amounts of lithium are present in the human body, it does not seem to serve any specific function. Lithium is used as a medication to treat certain psychiatric disorders and these patients are at >> Read More ...

Pyonephrosis (Pus Collection in the Kidney)

What is pyonephrosis? Pyonephrosis is a condition where pus collects in the kidney as result of an infection with a urinary tract obstruction. A kidney infection, known as pyelonephritis, is mainly bacterial in origin. If the pus cannot drain out of the kidney due to some obstruction in the ureter usually, it accumulated >> Read More ...

Polycystic Kidney Disease (Multiple Kidney Cysts)

Polycystic Kidney Disease Definition Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a condition marked by the formation of cysts in the kidney. In some cases, the sac-like cysts can also be seen in the pancreas, liver, and spleen. It is one of the most common genetic disorders, running in the families and a common cause of kidney >> Read More ...

Renal Vein Thrombosis (Blood Clot in Kidney Vein)

What is renal vein thrombosis? Renal vein thrombosis is a blood clot that forms inside the blood vessel that empties blood out of the kidney. Unlike blockage of the artery that brings oxygen-rich blood to the kidney, a renal vein thrombosis is unlikely to cause permanent damage to the kidney or death of any portion of the >> Read More ...

Renal Artery Stenosis (Narrow Kidney Artery)

What is renal artery stenosis? Renal artery stenosis is a narrowing of the artery that carries blood to the kidney. It may occur in one or both arteries and its branches. When the artery is fully blocked then it is known as renal artery occlusion. As the artery narrows it reduces the blood flow to the kidney and this >> Read More ...

Floating Kidney (Nephroptosis)

What is a floating kidney? A floating kidney, medically known as nephroptosis, is a condition where the kidney moves from its normal position when a person lies flat or stands upright. This movement is abnormal. Although most organs in the abdomen may descend slightly when a person stands upright, the kidneys usually do >> Read More ...

Trigonitis (Trigone of the Urinary Bladder Cell Changes)

What is trigonitis? Trigonitis is a condition where the the cells lining the lower part of the bladder undergo changes into a different cell type. The affected part of the bladder is known as the trigone, hence the term trigonitis. There is often confusion about trigonitis since the term -itis usually indicates >> Read More ...

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Treatment, List of Antibiotics

About UTIs The urinary tract comprises the passages through which urine is passed out of the body. It terminates at the external urethral orifice which is essentially the hole on the genitalia from where urine is expelled. The lower urinary tract is prone to infections as microbes enter through the external urethral >> Read More ...

Analgesic Nephropathy (Painkiller Kidney Disease)

Analgesics, commonly referred to as painkillers, are the most widely used drug globally. Although many of the more frequently used analgesics are safe to use in moderate doses over a short period of time, prolonged analgesic use can lead to a host of adverse effects on the body. This is not limited to any specific organ or >> Read More ...
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